Angola has not reported a case of polio since July 2011. However, it remains at high risk, with the possibility that low-level circulation is continuing in some parts of the country, in addition to the constant threat of re-introduction.
Many children in the capital, Luanda, and the greater province surrounding it, continue to miss out on receiving Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). In its most recent report from June 2012, the Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in particular highlighted ongoing risk to Luanda, which it calls the ‘natural home for polio’ in the country and where ‘poor surveillance and unacceptable levels of missed children are putting Luanda at high risk’. Independent monitoring data indicates that upwards of 10% of children are missed during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Communication in Action: overview of community engagement
Compared with Asia, poliovirus transmission persists over a broad area in Africa. In addition, polio outbreaks due to importations generally result in more polio cases over longer periods of time than in Asia. Both are due to weak health systems, resulting in low immunization coverage. These challenges are off-set by consistently high per-dose efficacy of oral polio vaccine in Africa, and a lower population immunity threshold (80–85%) needed to stop poliovirus transmission. Consequently, the immunity thresholds needed to stop polio transmission in Africa can be achieved with relatively fewer vaccination campaigns over wide areas and maintaining high coverage.
The 2012 National Emergency Action plan for Angola recommends the following emergency approach.
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