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Polio this week as of 3 February 2016

    

  •  There are ten weeks to go until the globally synchronized switch from the trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine, an important milestone in achieving a polio-free world. Read more here

 

  • The WHO Executive Board met last week, recognising progress made in 2015 and renewing their commitment to polio eradication. Read more here.

 

  • For the first time in history, Africa has had 4-months without any wild or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases, nor any environmental positive sample.
              

 

  





Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases







Total cases

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

0

0

3

0

73

28

- in endemic countries

0

0

3

0

73

 3

- in non-endemic countries

0

0

0

0

0

 25

 





Case breakdown by country











Countries

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in



 2015

Onset of paralysis of  most 



 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Afghanistan 0 0 0 0 19 0 19-Nov-15 NA
Pakistan  0 0 6 0 54 2 31-Dec-15 09-Feb-15
Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 4 NA 02-Oct-15
Lao PDR  0 0 0 0 0 7 NA 18-Dec-15
Madagascar 0 0 0 0 0 10 NA 22-Aug-15
Myanmar 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 05-Oct-15
Nigeria 0 0 0 0 0 1 NA 16-May-15
Ukraine 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 07-Jul-15

 



NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. Figures exclude non-AFP sources. Madagascar, Ukraine and Lao PDR cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. cVDPV definition: see document "Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses" at http://www.polioeradication.org/Portals/0/Document/Resources/VDPV_ReportingClassification.pdf. Implementation as of 15 August 2015.

Afghanistan

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Kunar on 19 November 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains 19, compared to 28 reported in the country in 2014.  
  • No new WPV1 environmental positive samples were reported in the past week. The most recent environmental positive samples were collected on 27 December 2015 - one in Jalalabad in Nangarhar province and the second in Kabul city. A vaccination response activity was carried out in Kabul city from 31 January to 2 February.
  • Sub-National Immunization Days SNIDs are planned from 16 to 19 February, using bOPV. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned from 15 to 18 March, prior to the switch. Read more about the switch here.


Pakistan

  • One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week, with onset of paralysis on 31 December in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now 54, compared to 305 reported for 2014 by this time last year. A total of 306 cases reported onset in Pakistan in 2014.  
  • Four new WPV1 environmental positive samples were detected in the past week. Two were in Sindh province, in Hyderabad and Karachi Gulshan-e-Iqbal with collection dates of 5 January and 18 January respectively. The other two were isolated from Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in Kabdullah, Balochistan, with collection dates of 11 January and 15 January respectively.
  • Sub-National Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in February using tOPV. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in March using tOPV.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases were reported in 2015.  In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. The most recent WPV1 case in central Africa was reported from Cameroon, with onset of paralysis on 9 July 2014.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Cameroon, Congo, the Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea and  Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in February, all using the trivalent oral polio vaccine.

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week and no cases were reported in 2015.  The most recent case of WPV1 in the Horn of Africa had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014 in the Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia.  
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the past week. No cases were reported in 2015.  In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September 2014.
  • In February, supplementary immunization activities will take place in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda and Yemen, using the trivalent oral polio vaccine.

Lao People's Democratic Republic

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case was reported in Longxan district of Xaysomboune province, with onset of paralysis on 18 November 2015. The total number of cVDPV1 cases in 2015 is seven.
  • Outbreaks of cVDPVs can arise in areas with low population immunity, emphasizing the importance of maintaining strong vaccination coverage. Learn more about VDPVs
  • An emergency outbreak response is continuing in the country, with particular focus on three high-risk provinces.  
  • Efforts continue to further strengthen surveillance activities in all provinces of the country, to assure that no cVPDV1 transmission is missed anywhere. 
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned from 15 to 28 February using tOPV. The campaign will target an expanded age group of children up to the age of 15 years.

Madagascar

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 22 August from Sud-Ouest province.  The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains 10.  
  • The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset of paralysis in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here
  • The focus of the outbreak response is on strengthening subnational surveillance, and filling vaccination coverage gaps.  
  • The emergency outbreak response continues to be intensified. National Immunization Days (NIDs) in March and April will reach children using the trivalent oral polio vaccine.

Myanmar

  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) have been reported in Myanmar. The most recent reported case was isolated from a 16-month old child in Rakhine, with onset of paralysis on 05 October. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2015 remains 2.
  • The case is genetically linked to a VDPV isolated in the same village in April, which has now been reclassified as a cVDPV type 2. The genetic changes in the isolate suggest the cVDPV2 has been circulating for more than a year. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here
  • The Ministry of Health of Myanmar is being supported by WHO and partners of the GPEI in planning and implementing an urgent response to the newly detected outbreaks. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned from 20 to 22 February using trivalent oral polio vaccine. 
  • Significant immunization gaps remain in Myanmar, with an estimated 24% of children un- or under-immunized. Vaccination coverage remains particularly low among special at-risk populations. AFP surveillance quality indicators are acceptable at the national level, but subnational gaps persist.
  • While WHO assesses the risk of international spread from Myanmar to be low, surveillance and immunization activities are being strengthened in neighbouring countries.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015.  Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria. 
  • The most recent WPV1 case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April 2014.  
  • The extensive regional outbreak response has been successful in stopping the outbreak, although continued conflict means the population remains at risk from further importations of polio, and continued surveillance and immunization is essential.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 is six.  The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Kwali Local Government Area (LGA), Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, with onset of paralysis on 16 May; this is the only cVDPV2 case reported in Nigeria in 2015. 
  • Vigilance must be maintained to ensure that all children are reached with polio vaccines and that surveillance systems remains alert to polioviruses. 
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in February and March, both using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV).

Ukraine

  • No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 7 July in the Zakarpatskaya oblast, in south-western Ukraine, bordering Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. The number of cVDPV1 cases reported in 2015 remains 2.
  • An assessment of the outbreak response in Ukraine, while acknowledging the efforts of Ministry of Health staff and partners, has concluded that major and rapid improvements are required in campaign quality and surveillance to ensure the outbreak is closed within 6 months.  
  • Ukraine had been at particular risk of emergence of a cVDPV, due to very low vaccination coverage. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) were carried out 25 to 29 January using tOPV. More

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in West Africa (excluding Nigeria) occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.  
  • No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were reported in Guinea in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2015 remains 4. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 2 October in Siguiri district, Kankan province.  The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset in August 2014.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger and Sierra Leone from 26 to 29 February. All campaigns are using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV).