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Polio this week as of 25 February 2015
 

  • The fourth meeting of the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee concerning the international spread of wild poliovirus was convened last week. Outcomes and the Committee’s final report will be made available on www.polioeradication.org.

 


   

  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

10

0

          24

4

359

54 

- in endemic countries

10

 0

24

4

340

 51

- in non-endemic countries

0

 0

0

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 9 0 21 4 306 21  31-Jan-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 1 3 28 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Nigeria 0 0 0 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-Nov-14 
Somalia 0 0  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 0  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 0  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 0  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 0 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 0 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
 South Sudan  0  0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
 Madagascar  0  0 N/A  29-Sep-14 

 
  cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014.

Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) type 2 cases with greater than or equal to 6nt (10nt for type 1) difference from sabin in VP1 and other evidence for established circulation. Figures exclude VDPV from non-AFP source.

Afghanistan

  • One new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in the past week in Reg district, Hilmand province. This was the first case reported in 2015, with onset of paralysis on 21 January. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 remains 28. Most of the cases from 2014 were linked to cross-border transmission with neighbouring Pakistan.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned for 15 – 17 March using trivalent OPV in most areas, and combining inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) with bivalent OPV in some high-risk areas of Hilmand, Kandahar and Nangarhar provinces.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6, compared to 53 in 2013. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 16 November in Barde Local Governmental Area of Yobe state. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 30.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled for 21 – 25 March using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV).    

Pakistan

  • Two new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. One case was reported in Khyber district in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and the other in Peshawar, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 remains 306, and 9 for 2015. The most recent onset of paralysis was on 31 January in Peshawar.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December. The number of cVDPV cases reported in 2014 remains 21.
  • A panel of experts was convened on 14 – 15 February for a consultation to review the current epidemiological situation and the status of implementation of the existing ‘low transmission season’ polio eradication plan. With 8 weeks remaining until the end of the low season, the panel urged that Emergency Operations Centres continue strengthening the roll-out of the plan and that, at the provincial level, teams more completely and accurately track its’ implementation. 

 

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the last week. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. Over 7 months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, onset of paralysis on 9 July).
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Cameroon and Chad starting on 27 February, both using bivalent OPV. Further NIDs are planned in Chad and Gabon and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in the Central African Republic and Cameroon in March. The next activities for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea are planned for April. 

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 WPV1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 WPV1s in Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the last week. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in South Sudan from 24 – 27 March, and in Somalia and Yemen with dates to be confirmed. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are also planned in Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda in March with dates to be confirmed.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip for more than 10 months. The most recent WPV positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March 2014. All environmental samples collected since April have been negative for WPV.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April.
  • Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in West Africa in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa help to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio to create a buffer zone surrounding the affected countries. The Ebola crisis in western Africa continues to have an impact on the implementation of polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Twenty two experts from the National Polio Surveillance Programme (NPSP) in India have been deployed for 3 months to strengthen surveillance systems and data collection for the Ebola response, demonstrating the polio legacy in action.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in Niger and Benin on 27 February to 2 March. From 27 to 31 March, NIDs will take place in Mali and Niger using trivalent OPV. On 10 – 13 April, NIDs are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal, with Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Niger on the same dates. Two rounds of NIDs are scheduled on 27 – 31 March and 10 – 13 April for the three Ebola-affected countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.