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Polio this week as of 27 August 2014

 

  • Continued transmission in Kano: wild poliovirus 1 transmission continues in a geographically limited area of southern Kano state, Nigeria, indicating pockets where vaccination campaigns and social mobilization are still too weak to assure sufficient coverage during campaigns. Kano is the only state in Nigeria reporting cases of wild poliovirus since April.

 

  • Protecting west Africa: Even as polio programme staff across west Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, preparations are going ahead for large scale multi-country vaccination campaigns in those countries not affected by Ebola, in mid-September. 

  

 

  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

149

214

416

- in endemic countries

131

72

160

- in non-endemic countries

18

142

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 117     117 25  
25 93 30-Jul-14
Afghanistan 8     8 4     4 14 17-Jun-14
Nigeria 6     6 43
  43 53 24-Jul-14
Somalia 4     4 128
  128 194 03-Jun-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 03-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 5     5       0 4 09-Jul-14
Syria 1     1       0 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1 1     1 9 05-Jan-14
Kenya
    0 13     13 14 14-Jul-13
Total 149 0 0 149 214 0   214 416
Total in endemic countries      131 0 0 131 72 0
72 160   
 Total outbreak 18    0   0 18 142 0 0 142 256  

Data in WHO as of 27 August 2013 for 2013 data and 26 August 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan

  • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 remains eight. The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on 17 June, from Khost province (linked to virus circulating in adjacent North Waziristan, Pakistan).
  • Vaccination activities have resumed in parts of Helmand Province, Southern Region, where no vaccination had taken place for 5 months.

Nigeria

  • One new case of WPV1 was reported in the past week. This most recent case, which had onset of paralysis in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano, on 24 July, is the second to be reported in the LGA this year. Nigeria’s total case count for 2014 is now six. Kano is the only state with cases of WPV since April.
  • One new case of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) was reported in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 is 19. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on 22 June, also in Kano.
  • The next subnational immunization days (SNIDs) are planned for late September. 

Pakistan

  • Two new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week, one from Khyber Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and one from Karachi in Sindh, bringing the total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 to 117. The FATA case is the most recent WPV1 case in the country, with onset of paralysis on 30 July.
  • No new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week. The country has reported 16 cases of cVDPV2 to date in 2014 and the most recent case had onset of paralysis on 27 May in FR Bannu, FATA.
  • Immunization activities are continuing with particular focus on known high-risk areas.

Central Africa

  • No new WPV1 cases were reported this week. In 2014, ten cases were reported in central Africa: five in Cameroon and five in Equatorial Guinea.
  • The outbreak in Cameroon has been ongoing since at least October 2013, with international spread to Equatorial Guinea in 2014. In March 2014, WHO elevated the risk assessment of international spread of polio from Cameroon to very high, due to expanding circulation and influx of vulnerable refugee populations from Central African Republic (CAR).
  • In Cameroon, vaccination activities took place on 23-26 August, targeting extended age groups, including in refugee camps in border areas with CAR.
  • In Equatorial Guinea, SIAs are planned for 04-07 September and again later in the month.

Horn of Africa

  • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. Five cases have been reported in the Horn of Africa to date in 2014: one WPV1 in Ethiopia (14 January) and four WPV1s in Somalia (the most recent on 3 June in Mudug, Puntland).
  • The Polio Technical Advisory Group (TAG) for the Horn of Africa has warned that the outbreak is likely to continue in Somalia and possibly the Somali region of Ethiopia unless urgent improvements are made in SIA operations and surveillance and improved vaccination outreach is focused on pastoral communities.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • WPV1 is not being detected in environmental samples in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip in recent months; the most recent positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. Environmental samples collected since April have been negative.

Middle East

  • No new cases were reported in the past week. There have been three cases of WPV1 reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria. The most recent case reported from Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April. Syria’s most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January.
  • SNIDs will start on 31 August in high-risk governorates of Syria where over the past several SIAs coverage has been lower than in other areas. Technical support is being maximized to these areas.
  • On 6-7 September, a review of the Phase 2 outbreak response in the Middle East will be conducted in Beirut, Lebanon. 
     

West Africa

  • No WPV1 cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012. In addition, a single case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July 2013.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, preparations are going ahead for large scale multi-country vaccination campaigns in mid-September, in those countries not affected by Ebola.