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Polio this week as of 29 July 2015
 

       

  • 24 July marked one year since a child was last paralyzed by wild poliovirus in Nigeria. Final laboratory results on all specimens for the full 12 month period are expected by September 2015, which, if clear for poliovirus, may lead to Nigeria being removed from the list of polio-endemic countries. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative commends the hard work of the Nigerian government, partners, religious and community leaders, and health workers for such strong progress towards stopping polio. Yet the job is not yet finished, and it is crucial that commitment from all stakeholders is maintained. Read more

 

  • Despite the deteriorating security situation in Yemen, a humanitarian pause enabled 50 000 children to be reached with the oral polio vaccine during the final week of Ramadan. Read more 
     


   

  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

34

9

130

30

359

55

- in endemic countries

34

1

115

30

340

 52

- in non-endemic countries

0

8

15

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 28 0 102 16 306 22 30-Jun-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 6 8 28 27-Jun-15 N/A 
Nigeria 0 1 5 14 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-May-15 
Somalia 0 4  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 5  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 2  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 3  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 1 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 1 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
South Sudan  0  0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
Madagascar 8  0 N/A  29-May-15 

 
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

Afghanistan

  • One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week in Shindand district of Hirat province, with onset of paralysis on 27 June. This is the most recent case reported in Afghanistan. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now six.
  • This new case is related to the rest of the 2015 cases, most of which have been in neighbouring Farah. All cases from 2015 have been caused by viruses linked to those which had been re-established in Southern Afghanistan in 2014.
  • Intensive and strengthened supplementary immunization activities are planned in the coming months. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled on 16 - 18 August using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will follow across the south of the country on 20 - 22 September, and NIDs using trivalent OPV will take place on 18 - 20 October.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Kwali Local Government Area (LGA), Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, with onset of paralysis on 16 May; this is the only cVDPV2 case reported in Nigeria in 2015.
  • In line with the National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication, aggressive and rapid vaccination activities are conducted in response to any detected virus. Three case response 'mopping-up campaigns' using trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) are taking place in the FCT and Kaduna and Kogi states, as well as in adjacent LGAs of Niger and Nasarawa states, to stop transmission of the persistent strain of cVDPV2. Two ‘mopping-up campaigns’ have already taken place in July and a third is scheduled for 15 – 18 August.

Pakistan

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case, reported in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, had onset of paralysis on 30 June. The location of this case is still under review. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains 28, compared to 94 at this time last year.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week, and no cases have been reported in 2015. The number of cVDPV2 cases reported in 2014 remains 22. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December 2014.
  • No new environmental samples positive for WPV1 were reported in the past week. The most recent positive sample was collected on 1 June in Killa Abdullah, Balochistan province.
  • Environmental surveillance indicates widespread circulation of polioviruses, not just in known infected areas but also in areas without cases. Environmental surveillance continues to be a very helpful supplemental surveillance tool enabling the programme to increase the overall sensitivity of surveillance for polioviruses.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. More than twelve months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, with onset of paralysis on 9 July).
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are underway in the Central African Republic (CAR) with parts of the country covered in separate campaigns between end-May and August. NIDs will take place Angola on 14 - 16 August and again in September. CAR, Chad, Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon also have supplementary immunization activities planned for September.  

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week and no cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (with onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September.
  • A high level vaccination event took place at Selam health centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this month with the heads of several GPEI partners and the Minister of Health to advocate the importance of sustaining commitment to keep the country polio-free. Read more.
  • Despite the deteriorating security situation in Yemen, a humanitarian pause enabled 50,000 children to be reached with the oral polio vaccine in the last week of Ramadan. Further supplementary immunization activities are also planned for August and September. Read more.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in August in Kenya on 1 – 5 and 29 – 2 September. In Somalia, two SNIDs are planned in August and NIDs in September. In September, National Immunization Days (NIDs) are also planned in Djibouti, and SNIDs in Ethiopia and Kenya.

Madagascar

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 29 May in Boeni. The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains 8. The total number of cVDPV1 cases reported in 2014 was one.
  • These cases are genetically linked to a case reported in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here.
  • The emergency outbreak response is now being intensified. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled on 3 – 7 August using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). A campaign on 14 – 18 September will cover an expanded age group of up to 15 years. Extended age group NIDs are also planned for October.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April 2014.
  • Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in September in Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger and Sierra Leone, and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Cote d’Ivoire and Mali.