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Polio this week as of  12 July 2016

 

  • The Technical Advisory Group on polio eradication for Afghanistan met in Kabul on 11-13 July and commended progress towards interrupting the transmission of polio whilst stressing the challenges that remain. Progress in the context of surveillance was also commended in the Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) Surveillance Review that took place in Afghanistan in June





  

Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases



Total cases

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

19

3

33

9

74

32

- in endemic countries

19

0

33

1

74

 3

- in non-endemic countries

0

3

0

8

0

 29

 

 

Case breakdown by country



Countries

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

Onset of paralysis of  most  recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Afghanistan 6 0 5 0 20 0 29-May-16 NA
Pakistan  13 0 28 2 54 2 18-Jun-16 09-Feb-15
Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 7 NA 01-Dec-15
Lao PDR  0 3 0 0 0 8 NA 11-Jan-16
Madagascar 0 0 0 8 0 10 NA 22-Aug-15
Myanmar 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 05-Oct-15
Nigeria 0 0 0 1 0 1 NA 16-May-15
Ukraine 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 07-Jul-15



NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2015. Figures exclude non-AFP sources. Madagascar, Ukraine and Lao PDR cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. cVDPV definition: see document "Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses" at http://www.polioeradication.org/Portals/0/Document/Resources/VDPV_ReportingClassification.pdf. Implementation as of 15 August 2015.



Afghanistan

               
  • No new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Shigal Wa Sheltan district of Kunar province on 29 May.  The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains six compared to five at this time last year .

 

  • No WPV1 environmental positive samples have been reported in 2016. The most recent environmental positive samples were collected on 27 December 2015 - one in Jalalabad district of Nangarhar province and the second in the city of Kabul. 

 

  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are taking place 18–22 July using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV).

 

  • The next National Immunization Day (NID) are planned for 15–19 August, also using bOPV.

 

Pakistan

                               
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case was reported in South Waziristan district of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), with onset of paralysis on 18 June. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains 13, compared to 28 at this time in 2015.  

 

  • No new WPV1 environmental positive samples were reported in the past week. The most recent positive sample was collected from Dera Ghazi Khan district in Punjab province on 12 May.

 

  • Efforts continue to further strengthen immunization and surveillance activities in all provinces of the country.

Lao People's Democratic Republic

                             
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case was reported in Fuang district of Vientiane province, with onset of paralysis on 11 January 2016. The total number of cVDPV1 cases remains three in 2016 and eight in 2015.

 

  • Outbreaks of cVDPVs can arise in areas with low population immunity, emphasizing the importance of maintaining strong vaccination coverage. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here.

 

  • The second outbreak response assessment (OBRA) concluded that the country is on track towards interrupting virus transmission

Madagascar

           
  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) have been reported in 2016. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 22 August 2015 from Sud-Ouest region.  The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains 10.  

 

  • The 2015 cases are genetically linked to a case with onset of paralysis in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus. 

 

  • The third Outbreak Response Assessment in Madagascar found that the surveillance system is not yet strong enough to conclude that polio transmission has been interrupted. Thirty-nine high-risk districts have been identified to receive focused attention.

 

  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) will take place from 9-11 November using bivalent oral polio vaccine.

Myanmar

  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) have been reported in 2016. The most recent case was isolated from a 16-month old child in Maungdaw, Rakhine, with onset of paralysis on 05 October 2015. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2015 remains two.

Nigeria

     
  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in 2016. The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.

 

  • No new environmental samples of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week. The most recent positive sample (and the only one in 2016) was collected in Maiduguri district of Borno state on 23 March.  

 

  • Genetic sequencing of the isolated strain indicates it is most closely linked genetically to a cVDPV2 detected in a case from Borno in November 2013 and last detected in November 2014 in Yobe, indicating the strain has been circulating without detection for almost two years. Active case searching for actual cases of acute flaccid paralysis is being strengthened and the frequency of collection of environmental samples is being increased to ascertain the extent of circulation of this strain.  

 

  • The cVDPV2 strain detected in Borno indicates prolonged ongoing cVDPV2 transmission, either in Borno, or adjacent areas.  A series of large-scale outbreak response supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) using monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOVP2) was initiated, following authorization and release of the vaccine from the global stockpile by the Director General of the World Health Organization. The third vaccination round is taking place from 09–16 July. 

 

  • In high risk areas of Borno, a campaign using inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is planned for September, with dates to be confirmed.

West Africa

           
  • No circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases have been reported from Guinea in 2016. The most recent case was reported from Kankan district, with onset of paralysis on 14 December. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2015 remains seven. The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset in August 2014. 

 

  • An Outbreak Response Rapid Assessment (OBRA) is planned for 11 August in Guinea to assess progress towards stopping the transmission of VDPV2

 

  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in August in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Niger in September with dates to be confirmed. In October, NIDs are planned in Benin, Guinea, Liberia, Mali and Sierra Leone, and SNIDs in Mauritania.