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Polio this week as of 20 May 2015
 

       
  • Ministers of Health from around the world are meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, this week for the annual World Health Assembly.  The Ministers will discuss a number of topics related to public health, including polio eradication.  The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has prepared a status report for delegates.  The report and an accompanying resolution are expected to inform the discussions. 

 

 

  • Polio staff continue to offer support to the humanitarian response to the devastating earth quakes in Nepal. Read more

 

  • Liberia and Sierra Leone have both conducted polio and measles vaccination campaigns during April and May.  These are the first campaigns conducted in these countries since 2013 (due to the Ebola outbreak).  Polio staff in these countries continue to assist in the Ebola outbreak response efforts


   

  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

24

0

82

14

359

55

- in endemic countries

24

 0

73

14

340

 52

- in non-endemic countries

0

 0

9

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 23 0 66 10 306 22 20-Apr-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 1 4 28 21-Jan-15 N/A 
Nigeria 0 0 3 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-Nov-14 
Somalia 0 0  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 3  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 1  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 3  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 1 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 1 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
South Sudan  0  0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
Madagascar  0  0 N/A  29-Sep-14 

 
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

Afghanistan

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2015 in Reg district of Hilmand province. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains 1, and 28 for 2014. Most of the cases from 2014 were linked with cross-border transmission from neighbouring Pakistan.
  • Environmental sampling in the country continues to find wild poliovirus (most recently in Hilmand). Such sampling is invaluable to improved surveillance for the virus.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned from 14 – 16 June across the south and east using bivalent OPV. National Immunization Days are scheduled in August.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 16 November in Barde Local Governmental Area of Yobe state. No cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 30.
  • Environmental sampling continues to compliment surveillance, with cVDPV circulation last detected in March in Kaduna and Sokoto.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned on 7 – 9 June and 25 - 28 July in the north and east of the country.

Pakistan

  • One new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reported this week, with onset of paralysis in Charsada district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This most recent case had onset of paralysis on 20 April. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now 23 (and remains 306 for 2014).
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. The number of cVDPV cases reported in 2014 remains 22. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December.
  • One new environmental sample positive for WPV1 was reported this week, from Quetta district of Balochistan, and two samples positive for vaccine derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in Quetta and Lahore.
  • Currently, the focus of the polio eradication programme in Pakistan is on known infected areas and on areas deemed to be high-risk but which have not reported polio cases. Environmental surveillance indicates widespread circulation of polioviruses – WPV as well as VDPV – not just in known infected areas but also in areas without cases. Environmental surveillance is proving to be an instrumental supplemental surveillance tool enabling a clearer epidemiological picture. 

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. Over ten months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, onset of paralysis on 9 July).
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are scheduled in Cameroon and Chad in the second half of May. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned to begin this month in the Central African Republic (which will be staggered until August) and Congo.  

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September.
  • Subnational Immunization Days are planned starting on 31 May in Somalia, and in Ethiopia and Somalia in June with dates to be confirmed.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April 2014.
  • It has been over a year since the onset of paralysis of the most recent case of wild poliovirus in the Middle East. Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Liberia and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Niger in June with dates to be confirmed. National Immunization Days are scheduled in Sierra Leone in July.
  • Liberia and Sierra Leone have both conducted polio and measles vaccination campaigns during April and May. These are the first campaigns conducted in these countries since 2013 (due to the Ebola outbreak). Polio staff in these countries continue to assist in the Ebola outbreak response efforts.