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Polio this week as of 22 July 2015
 

       

  • Last week, Forbes.com featured a live discussion on the global polio eradication effort with Dr Hamid Jafari, Director for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative at WHO, and Dr John Sever, Vice Chair of Rotary International’s Polio Plus Program.  A podcast of the discussion can be accessed here.  

 

  • 24 July 2015 will mark 12 months since the last reported case due to wild poliovirus in Nigeria had onset of paralysis.  See ‘Nigeria’ section for more.   As Nigeria approaches a year with no child paralyzed with polio this week, influential figures are calling for continued vigilance and commitment both from the Nigerian government and internationally. Read Nigerian Academy of Science President Oyewale Tomori’s appeal to President Buhari and President Obama here


   

  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

33

9

128

26

359

55

- in endemic countries

33

1

112

26

340

 52

- in non-endemic countries

0

8

16

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 28 0 99 16 306 22 30-Jun-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 5 8 28 07-Jun-15 N/A 
Nigeria 0 1 5 10 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-May-15 
Somalia 0 4  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 5  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 2  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 3  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 1 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 1 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
South Sudan  0  0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
Madagascar 8  0 N/A  29-May-15 

 
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

Afghanistan

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 07 June 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains five.
  • No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 March 2013.
  • Intensive and strengthened supplementary immunization activities are planned in the coming months. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled on 16 to 18 August using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will follow across the south of the country in September, and NIDs using trivalent OPV will take place in October.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Kwali Local Government Area (LGA), Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, with onset of paralysis on 16 May; this is the only cVDPV2 case reported in Nigeria in 2015.
  • 24 July 2015 will mark 12 months since the last reported case due to wild poliovirus in Nigeria had onset of paralysis (the full 12-month data is pending final laboratory classification from all environmental samples and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, collected up until 24 July 2015. Results are expected by September).
  • This progress is thanks to the hard work of the Nigerian government, partners, religious and community leaders, and health workers.
  • While Nigeria is closer than ever to ending polio, the job is not yet finished. At least two more years must pass without a case of wild poliovirus for Nigeria to be certified polio-free along with the rest of the WHO's African region. To achieve this goal, Nigeria and all countries in the African region must maintain high-quality surveillance for poliovirus and vaccination campaigns, particularly in hard-to-reach and insecure areas, and improve routine immunization.
  • At the same time, efforts are ongoing to rapidly stop a cVDPV2 outbreak affecting the country, with aggressive outbreak response using trivalent OPV being implemented in the affected and high-risk areas.

Pakistan

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case, reported in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, had onset of paralysis on 30 June. The location of this case is still under review. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains 28, compared to 94 at this time last year.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week, and no cases have been reported in 2015. The number of cVDPV2 cases reported in 2014 remains 22. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December 2014.
  • No new environmental samples positive for WPV1 were reported in the past week. The most recent positive sample was collected on 1 June in Killa Abdullah, Balochistan province.
  • Environmental surveillance indicates widespread circulation of polioviruses, not just in known infected areas but also in areas without cases. Environmental surveillance continues to be a very helpful supplemental surveillance tool enabling the programme to increase the overall sensitivity of surveillance for polioviruses.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned until August using bivalent OPV. The next National Immunization Day is planned for September using bivalent OPV with dates to be confirmed.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. More than twelve months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, with onset of paralysis on 9 July).
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are underway in the Central African Republic (CAR) with parts of the country covered in separate campaigns between end-May and August.. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are scheduled in CAR from 24 to 27 July. National Immunisation Days (NIDs) are planned for Angola from 24 to 26 July and Congo from 23-27 July.
  • Supplementary Immunization Activities will take place in September across Angola, Chad, Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon.  

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week and no cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (with onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in August in Kenya on 1 – 5 and 29 – 2 September and two SNIDs in Somalia with dates to be confirmed. In September, National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia, and SNIDs in Ethiopia, Kenya.

Madagascar

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 29 May in Boeni. The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains 8. The total number of cVDPV1 cases reported in 2014 was one. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here.
  • These cases are genetically linked to a case reported in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus.
  • The emergency outbreak response is now being intensified. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled on 4 – 7 August using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) and in September and October using bivalent OPV with dates to be confirmed.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April 2014.
  • Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in September in Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger and Sierra Leone, and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana and Mali.