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Polio this week as of 26 November 2014
 

  • In response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) in South Sudan, over 19,000 children were vaccinated last week in Bentiu Poc, where the two cases were reported. Outbreak response plans are in place to hold three rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas to stop transmission of the virus.
  • In the north of Madagascar, SIAs are planned for December in response to the outbreak of cVDPV. National Immunization Days are planned for January. The aim is to boost immunity across the country against all strains of poliovirus.
  • A planning meeting was held in Pakistan last week to develop a strategy for the low poliovirus transmission season, December 2014 to May 2015, using lessons learned from high risk areas. There is national consensus for the low season plan, including increased support from the Pakistan law enforcement and security services. The structure of the planned Emergency Operations Centre for polio eradication at the Federal and Provincial levels is being finalized.
  • For the first time ever, only 1 case of wild poliovirus has been reported in Africa in the last 4 months, despite the high season for polio transmission. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 11 August in Somalia.

  

 

  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

306

347

416

- in endemic countries

287

123

160

- in non-endemic countries

19

224

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 260     260 64  
64 93 11-Nov-14
Afghanistan 21     21 9     9 14 05-Oct-14
Nigeria 6     6 50
  50 53 24-Jul-14
Somalia 5     5 183
  183 194 11-Aug-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 03-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 5     5  4     4 4 09-Jul-14
Syria 1     1  17     17 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1 6     6 9 05-Jan-14
Kenya
    0 14     14 14 14-Jul-13
Total 306 0 0 306 347 0   347 416
Total in endemic countries      287 0 0 287 123 0
123 160   
 Total outbreak 19    0   0 19 224 0 0 224 256  

Data in WHO as of 26 November 2013 for 2013 data and 25 November 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan

  • One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week in Afghanistan in Kandahar district, with onset of paralysis on the 5 November. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 in Afghanistan is now 21.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. No cases of cVDPV2 have been reported in Afghanistan in 2014.
  • Given the growing outbreak in neighbouring Pakistan, Afghanistan continues to conduct supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to limit the spread of imported polioviruses. From 23 - 25 November, Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) took place in high risk areas of the south and east using monovalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). In December, SNIDs using bivalent OPV are planned in high risk areas of the south and east.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains six. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 26. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on 16 October, in Barde district, Yobe state.
  • In selected high risk areas of Kano state, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) using both inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) took place from 15 – 20 November. Large-scale Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned for 13 – 16 December across northern Nigeria. 

Pakistan

  • Fourteen new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Five were from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (2 in Khyber Agency, 2 in South Waziristan Agency and 1 in Frontier Region Bannu); 3 from Balochistan province (1 in Quetta district, 1 in Killa Abdullah district and 1 in Khuzdar district, which has not previously been infected in 2014); 5 from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (4 from Peshawar district and 1 from Karak district, which has not reported cases so far in 2014); and 1 from Karachi Site town in Sindh province. The total number of WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2014 is now 260, compared to 64 at this time last year. The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on 11 November, from Quetta district, Balochistan.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. This most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis in Khyber Agency, FATA, on 16 September. The country has reported 20 cases of cVDPV2 in 2014.
  • Immunization activities are continuing with particular focus on known high-risk areas, in particular newly opened previously inaccessible areas of FATA. At exit and entry points of conflict-affected areas that are still inaccessible during polio campaigns, 100 permanent vaccination points are being used to reach internally displaced families as they move in and out of the inaccessible area. Over 1 million people have been vaccinated in the past few months at transit points and in host communities, including over 850,000 children under 10 years old.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported this week. In 2014, 10 cases have been reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea.
  • Throughout November, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are being implemented across central Africa, with campaigns taking place in Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Republic of Congo and possibly in Gabon.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) in Cameroon and the Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Central African Republic and DRC are planned for December. From 17-21 December, campaigns in refugee camps in eastern Cameroon will reach children with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).

Horn of Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week in countries of the Horn of Africa. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of cases that have been reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 is six: 1 WPV1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 WPV1s in Somalia.
  • Following confirmation of two cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) in a refugee camp area of Unity state, South Sudan, outbreak response plans are in place to hold rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas. Over 19,000 children were vaccinated on 13 - 15 November in Bentiu Poc where the 2 cases were reported in September. The objective is to rapidly stop the cVDPV2 in the infected area, while further boosting immunity to type 1 wild poliovirus and to minimize the risk of renewed outbreaks following virus re-introduction from infected countries and areas.
  • In November, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are being held in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Sudan, and Child Health Days (CHDs) including polio vaccines in Yemen. Further SIAs are planned in each of these countries and in Uganda, South Sudan and Yemen in December.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip for more than 6 months. The most recent positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. Environmental samples collected since April have been negative.
  • The Regional Certification Commission (RCC) reported that they strongly believe that WPV transmission has been interrupted in Israel. A comprehensive end-of-outbreak report has been requested from the Israel National Certification Commission in order for the RCC to reach a conclusion.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Three cases of WPV1 have been reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria.
  • It has been more than seven months since the last reported cases of WPV1 in the Middle East. The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January, while the most recent case in Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April.
  • Phase 2 of the Middle East Outbreak response continues to be implemented, with focus on further improving the quality of supplementary immunization activities and to increase the reach of campaigns. 
     

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported this week. The last case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July 2013.
  • The Ebola crisis in western Africa is impacting on the implementation or polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Supplementary immunization activities in these countries have been postponed and the quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance has markedly decreased this year.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio.
  • Following immunization activities in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Togo in November, Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in Mali and Niger in December.