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Polio this week as of 29 April 2015
 

       
    • Our thoughts are with the people of Nepal, where the polio infrastructure is closely involved in relief operations. Polio staff are often among the first to respond in emergencies by utilizing their local knowledge and strong systems to plan, monitor and implement the response.
    • Following a year since the last detection of wild poliovirus in the environment, Israel has been moved from the International Health Regulations (IHR) list of countries infected with poliovirus to the list of countries no longer infected but vulnerable to the international spread of polio. The Emergency Committee of the IHR met on 24 April for the fifth time to discuss the temporary recommendations and a report will be released shortly. More.


   

  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

23

0

68

12

359

55

- in endemic countries

23

 0

59 

12

340

 52

- in non-endemic countries

0

 0

9

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 22 0 54 10 306 22  29-Mar-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 1 3 28 21-Jan-15 N/A 
Nigeria 0 0 2 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-Nov-14 
Somalia 0 0  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 3  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 1  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 3  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 1 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 1 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
South Sudan  0  0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
Madagascar  0  0 N/A  29-Sep-14 

 
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

Afghanistan

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2015 in Reg district of Hilmand province. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains 1, and 28 for 2014. Most of the cases from 2014 were linked with cross-border transmission from neighbouring Pakistan.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled for 10 – 12 May using bivalent OPV.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 16 November in Barde Local Governmental Area of Yobe state. No cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 30.
  • National Immunization Days took place from 25 - 28 April using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in most of the country, bivalent OPV in the south-west and IPV in some areas of the north.

Pakistan

  • One new WPV1 case was reported in this week in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. This most recent case had onset of paralysis on 29 March. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now 22 (and remains 306 for 2014).
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. The number of cVDPV cases reported in 2014 remains 22. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December.
  • Efforts are ongoing to strengthen the implementation of the ‘low season’ emergency operations plan. Strong, functional Emergency Operations Centres (EOCs) are now operational both at the federal and provincial levels. Strategies are focusing on clearly identifying reasons for missed children, and putting in place area-specific mechanisms to overcome area-specific challenges. Independent monitoring is being strengthened and rolled out across wider geographic areas to provide a clearer assessment of quality and associated gaps.
  • Activities are focusing on known infected areas, but also areas deemed at high-risk but which have not reported polio cases. Environmental surveillance indicates widespread transmission of polioviruses, not just in known infected areas but also in areas without cases. Environmental surveillance is proving to be an instrumental supplemental surveillance tool enabling a clearer epidemiological picture. 

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. Over nine months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, onset of paralysis on 9 July).
  • From 30 April to 2 May, Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are scheduled in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and from 1 to 3 May in the Central African Republic. In May, staggered National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned to begin in the Central African Republic (which will last until August), with NIDs in Congo and Equatorial Guinea and SNIDs in Cameroon and Chad.  

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September.
  • In May, Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip for more than 12 months. The most recent WPV positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March 2014. All environmental samples collected since April 2014 have been negative for WPV.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April 2014.
  • It has been over a year since the onset of paralysis of the most recent case of wild poliovirus in the Middle East. Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa help to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio to create a buffer zone surrounding the affected countries. The Ebola crisis in western Africa continues to have an impact on the implementation of polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Mali on 8 – 11 May and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Niger in May, with dates to be confirmed. In the three Ebola-affected countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, NIDs are planned in May, June and July (depending on the country).