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Polio this week as of 15 October 2014
 

  • More than 6 months has passed since a case of wild poliovirus was reported in Syria or Iraq. Over 22 million children have been vaccinated against polio multiple times in the past year, in the midst of active conflict and a humanitarian crisis.
  • Pakistan has reached 206 cases of paralysis caused by wild poliovirus in 2014. This is the highest number of cases on record by October in Pakistan in any year.
  • Reviews took place in both Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon in September to assess the quality of polio outbreak response activities conducted so far. Both assessments concluded that although much progress has been accomplished towards controlling the outbreaks, neither programme can be entirely confident that transmission has been interrupted. Recommendations have been made and follow up missions should take place by mid-December in Equatorial Guinea and by February 2015 in Cameroon.

  

 

  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

243

293

416

- in endemic countries

224

99

160

- in non-endemic countries

19

194

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 206     206 43  
43 93 22-Sep-14
Afghanistan 12     12 7     7 14 18-Sep-14
Nigeria 6     6 49
  49 53 24-Jul-14
Somalia 5     5 174
  174 194 11-Aug-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 03-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 5     5       0 4 09-Jul-14
Syria 1     1       0 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1 6     6 9 05-Jan-14
Kenya
    0 14     14 14 14-Jul-13
Total 243 0 0 243 293 0   293 416
Total in endemic countries      224 0 0 224 99 0
99 160   
 Total outbreak 19    0   0 19 194 0 0 194 256  

Data in WHO as of 15 October 2013 for 2013 data and 14 October 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan

  • Two new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week in Afghanistan. Both were from Kandahar province (1 from Kandahar district and one from the previously uninfected Panjwayi district). The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 18 September. The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 is now 12.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. No cases of cVDPV have been reported in 2014.
  • Given the growing outbreak in neighbouring Pakistan, Afghanistan is taking protective steps to limit any spread of virus. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) were held 12-14 October using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in high-risk areas of Southern Region and Eastern Region. The next National Immunization Days (NIDs) are scheduled for 19-21 October using bivalent OPV.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total case count for 2014 remains 6. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 remains 20. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on 17 August in Kano.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) were held on 11-14 October in Kano state. Wider SNIDs will be held 1-4 November in northern Nigeria using trivalent OPV. In some areas of Kano and Yobe states, supplementary immunization activities using inactivated polio vaccine will take place in November. 

Pakistan

  • Nineteen new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week in Pakistan. Of these, 6 are from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (1 from North Waziristan, 1 from South Waziristan and 4 from Khyber Agency); 9 are from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (1 from Tank district, 2 from Mardan district, 1 from the previously uninfected district of Nowshera and 5 from Peshawar district); 1 case from Balochistan province in Quetta district; 2 from Sindh province (1 in Khigadap and the other from the previously uninfected Khibinqasim district); and 1 from Punjab province, in the previously uninfected district of Sheikupura. This brings the total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 to 206 compared to 39 in 2013 by this date. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 22 September in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent cVDPV case had onset of paralysis in Khyber Agency, FATA, on 23 June. The country has reported 19 cases of cVDPV2 in 2014.
  • Immunization activities are continuing with particular focus on known high-risk areas, in particular the newly opened areas of FATA. At exit and entry points, 163 permanent vaccination points are being used to reach internally displaced families as they leave their homes.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported this week. In 2014, 10 cases have been reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea.
  • Reviews took place in both Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon in September to assess the quality and adequacy of polio outbreak response activities conducted so far. Both assessments concluded that although much progress has been accomplished towards controlling the outbreaks, neither programme can be entirely confident that transmission has been interrupted. Recommendations have been made and follow up missions should take place in by mid-December in Equatorial Guinea and by February 2015 in Cameroon.
  • In Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, National Immunization Days (NIDs) are starting at the end of October. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will be held in high risk areas of the Central African Republic in October and November. SNIDs will also take place in the Democratic Republic of Congo in October. NIDs will be held in November in Angola and Gabon.

Horn of Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week in the Horn of Africa. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of cases that have been reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 is six: 1 WPV1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 14 January) and 5 WPV1s in Somalia.
  • Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIA) will be held in Somalia in October and in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda in November. Child Health Days (CHDs) including supplementary bivalent OPV immunization are planned in Somalia and Yemen in November.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip in recent months. The most recent positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. Environmental samples collected since April have been negative.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Three cases of WPV1 have been reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria.
  • Last week marked 6 months with no cases of WPV1 in the Middle East. The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January. The last case in Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April.
  • Phase 2 of the Middle East Outbreak response continues to be implemented, with campaigns planned across the region in October, using a mix of bivalent and trivalent oral polio vaccine, depending on the area. 
     

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported this week. The last case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July 2013.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal and Togo starting 31 October. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will take place on the same dates in Niger.