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Polio this week as of 31 July 2014

 

  • In Pakistan, three new cases have been reported, including one from Balochistan. It is the first case in this province since October 2012. However, four positive environmental samples were collected in 2014 from Quetta, Balochistan, the most recent of which on 20 June. This case is linked to these positive environmental samples, suggesting local circulation of WPV1 this year in this area.

  • In Nigeria, more cases due to circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) have been reported this year (18) than those due to wild poliovirus type 1 (5 WPV1). Four new cVDPV2 cases were reported this week alone.  

 

  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

131

170

416

- in endemic countries

115

65

160

- in non-endemic countries

16

81

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 102     102 22  
22 93 09-Jul-14
Afghanistan 8     8 3     3 14 17-Jun-14
Nigeria 5     5 40
  40 53 27-May-14
Somalia 4     4 95
  95 194 03-Jun-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 03-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 3     3       0 4 31-Jan-14
Syria 1     1       0 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1
    0 9 05-Jan-14
Kenya
    0 10     10 14 14-Jul-13
Total 131 0 0 131 170 0   170 416
Total in endemic countries      115 0 0 115 65 0
65 160   
 Total outbreak 16    0   0 16 105 0 0 105 256  

Data in WHO as of 23 July 2013 for 2013 data and 22 July 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan

  • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 remains eight. The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on 17 June, from Khost province (linked to virus in North Waziristan, Pakistan).
  • Khost province borders Pakistan, where communities displaced by military action have been leaving North Waziristan. Health authorities in surrounding districts of Pakistan and across the border in Afghanistan have been vaccinating displaced children: more than 35,000 displaced children under the age of 10 are reported to have received a dose of bivalent oral polio vaccine (bivalent OPV) as they entered the Afghan provinces of Paktika and Khost.
  • The next nationwide supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are scheduled for August.

Nigeria

  • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 27 May in Kano state; Nigeria’s total case count for 2014 is five.
  • Four new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week, three from Kano and one from Borno. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 is now 18. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on 22 June, from Kano.
  • Mop-up vaccination activities took place in parts of four northern Nigerian states from 12-15 July. Larger subnational activities are planned for the country’s north during 9-12 August (trivalent OPV), as part of urgent efforts to address the spread of cVDPV2, and 20-23 September (bivalent OPV).

Pakistan

  • Three new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week, from Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA – from Khyber Agency and South Waziristan), and from Balochistan (Killa Abdullah), bringing the total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 to 102. The case from South Waziristan is the most recent in the country, with onset of paralysis on 9 July.
  • No new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week. The country has reported 16 cases of cVDPV2 to date in 2014 and the most recent case had onset of paralysis on 27 May in FR Bannu, FATA.
  • The WPV1 case from Balochistan is the first in the province since October 2012. However, four positive environmental samples were collected in 2014 from Quetta, Balochistan, the most recent of which on 20 June. This case is linked to these positive environmental samples, suggesting local circulation of WPV1 this year in this area.

Central Africa

  • No new cases were reported in central Africa this week. Equatorial Guinea has reported five WPV1 cases in 2014 and Cameroon has reported three WPV1 cases. The most recent case for the entire sub-region had onset of paralysis on 3 May, in Mbini district, Litoral province, Equatorial Guinea. Cameroon’s most recently reported case occurred more than five months ago, with onset of paralysis on 31 January.
  • Equatorial Guinea has already conducted three national campaigns using bivalent OPV. Two more national activities are planned for all children aged less than 15 years. A house-to-house search for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases will be conducted during the campaign; a similar search is currently taking place in Gabon. Countries across central Africa are conducting campaigns.

Horn of Africa

  • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. Five cases have been reported in the Horn of Africa to date in 2014: one WPV1 in Ethiopia (14 January) and four WPV1s in Somalia (the most recent on 3 June in Mudug, Puntland).
  • The most recent SIAs took place in accessible districts of Somalia on 15-18 June, except Puntland (which includes Mudug), which followed on 21-24 June. A Short Interval Additional Dose (SIAD) campaign took place on 7-11 July in Mudug, followed by a further campaign in Mudug and surrounding districts on 20-25 July.
  • Outbreak response campaigns in other areas across the Horn of Africa are continuing.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • WPV1 is not being detected in environmental samples in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip in recent months; the most recent positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. Samples collected in April and May and June have been negative. Fourteen positive samples were collected from January to March 2014 in Israel, following 136 positive samples in 2013.

Middle East

  • No new cases were reported in the past week. There have been three cases of WPV1 reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria. The most recent case reported from Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April. Syria’s most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014.
  • In the Middle East, the second phase of the comprehensive outbreak response is being implemented across the region. Iraq, Jordan and Syria are all planning to hold vaccination activities in August.
  • WHO and UNICEF are committed to working with all organizations and agencies providing humanitarian assistance to Syrians affected by the conflict. This includes vaccination of all children no matter where they are, whether in government or contested areas of the country, or outside Syria.

West Africa

  • No cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent case in the region was due to WPV1 and occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012. In addition, a single case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July, 2013.
  • Multi-country, synchronized immunization campaigns continue to be implemented across the region with activities planned in 15 countries in September (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo).